Gallstones are stones that form when substances in the bile harden.Gallstones can be as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball.There can be just one large stone,or hundreds of tiny stones.
Gallstones can block the normal flow of bile if they lodge in any of the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine.Bile trapped in these ducts can cause inflammation in the gallbladder,the ducts,or, rarely,the liver.If a gallstone blocks the opening to that duct,digestive enzymes can become trapped in the pancreas causing painful inflammation called gallstone pancreatitis.If any of these ducts remain blocked for a significant period of time,severe damage or infections can occur.
Gallstone attacks often occur after eating a meal,especially a fatty one. Symptoms can include pain in the upper,back,or under the right shoulder together with nausea,vomiting,abdominal bloating or indigestion. These symptoms can mimic those of other problems,including heart attack,so accurate diagnosis is important
This is an abnormally low level of the sugar glucose in the blood,usually a complication of diabetes,in which the body does not produce enough insulin to fully metabolise the glucose.Hypoglycemic symptoms include tiredness,dizziness,confusion, increased heart rate,and a cold,clammy feeling.
The treatment of hypoglycemia is careful diet,including eating small meals or snacks throughout the day; or by changing the dose or timing of insulin or other drugs that affect blood sugar levels.